They deal with the pragmatic aspects of discourse Andersen, ; Fraser, ; Yilmaz, They are multifunctional Fraser, ; Schiffrin, ; Yilmaz, They are short, consisting of one to three syllables Lenk, Additionally, Brinton refers to DMs as lexical items with the following features: they are optional, difficult to translate, marginal in respect to word class, syntactically quite free, empty of lexical meanings and they do not have propositional meanings or grammatical functions.
However, difficulty in translation is not a problem in the present study since the delivered speeches are in English.
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The said expert clarifies that DMs need integration in accomplishing discourse coherence which she furthermore attributes to the multi-functionality aspect of DMs. The aforementioned expert likewise enumerates the prevalent functions of DMs according to the results of the studies of a number of researchers. Like Muller , who provides the most widespread functions of DMs as:. Nevertheless, among these results of other researches, only the fifth and sixth functions are not relevant to the presidential speeches under study because they are delivered by the chief executive of certain republics whose crowd are expected to be attentive and where personal interaction is not evident.
Forms and functions of discourse markers and categories of discourse cohesion markers are certainly essential in a discourse as effective linguistic devices. He added that in order to smoothly sustain the flow of talk, interlocutors likely apply various strategies and provide diverse kinds of clues to establish mutual understanding at both interpersonal and textual levels. Considering intercultural encounters, written speeches of presidents are expected to be well-thought off and perfectly organized. Halliday and Hasan, b , Halliday and Hasan, c , Halliday and Hassan, a , Halliday and Hassan, d , Halliday and Hasan stress that the contribution of the cohesive devices in the cohesiveness of a text depends on their type, number, and degree of utilization.
McCArthy also points out that grammatical connections linked semantically individual clauses and utterances to make a text cohesive in Agham and Hadidi, ; Alyousef and Alnasser, ; Sharif, ; Aldera, ; Ulfa, Halliday and Hasan mention that discourse cohesion can be divided into grammatical and lexical cohesion. Grammatical cohesion consists of devices like reference, substitution, ellipsis and conjunction, while lexical cohesion is categorized into reiteration repetition, synonymy etc.
Reference is of three types: personal, demonstrative and comparative. It has three kinds: anaphoric, cataphoric, or esphoric. Anaphoric reference happens when the referent comes first the cohesive device. Like cohesion , coherence has a substantial share of discourse analysis in a significant wide array of research. With regard to the relationship between cohesion and coherence , cohesion refers to the grammatical and lexical features which form connections between parts of the text.
Intellectuals or specialists who conducted the thorough research on discourse analysis particularly on how to realize discourse coherence, come to an agreement that cohesive discourse might not be coherent Ali, ; Yang, cited in Fan and Zhang, With this, he claims that the socio-cultural experiences, values systems, cognitive structures, etc.
This is supported by McCarthy when the expert stresses that discourse analysis has reached into an extensive and heterogeneous discipline which pertains with the study of the relationship between language and the contexts in which it is employed as well as the cultural influences which impact language in use Sharif, ; Yinxiu, Forms and functions as well as categories of discourse cohesion markers were likewise ascertained as units of analysis based on the classification and definition of Halliday and Hasan, b , Halliday and Hasan, c , Halliday and Hassan, a , Halliday and Hassan, d and de Beaugrande and Dressler b.
The criteria for the selection of countries are the presence of the English speaking communities as well as their economic and tourism contributions in the global arena. They also belong to World Englishes in which English language is used for education, communication and official purposes. One hundred sixty thousand five hundred eighty , words from 54 speeches were analyzed. They were written in English language and delivered by the Asian presidents during national and international gatherings.
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They were lifted verbatim from their respective official website sources. Historical as well as political aspects of the chosen countries are not included in the investigation. Although the presidential speeches are not of equal number, the total number of words on the gathered corpora are sufficient enough for the purpose of linguistic discourse analysis. Discourse Markers are prominently evident in political speeches. Below is a list of selected Presidents in Asia whose single speech was considered in the study. The basis for the selection of countries is their number of English speakers as well as their economic and tourism contribution in the global arena.
Table 1 presents the names of selected Asian presidents and their speeches while Table 2 shows the description of corpora. And for classification and definition of discourse markers, Table 3 displays the forms and functions of DMs whereas Table 4 depicts the discourse markers cohesion category.
The first phase of the presentation of results and discussions focuses on the Discourse Markers Forms and Functions used in the presidential speeches of the selected Asian Presidents. To substantiate the discussions, brief demographic backgrounds of their countries are provided. Filipino Presidents whose speeches are under considerations are the elected presidents of the Philippine Republic. Philippines is situated in the western edge of the Pacific Ocean, along the Ring of Fire and the second-largest archipelago in the world, with over 7, islands.
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It has a population of ,, Its tourism industry was 8. Majority of the Filipinos speak English Tan, Below is the presentation of the percentage of discourse markers forms and functions evident in the presidential speeches of the Filipino presidents. Table 5 indicates the percentage of discourse markers forms and functions. Of all the forms and functions of discourse markers, Adding Something is commonly applied by Filipino presidents with a total percentage of 6.
This means that Filipino Presidents are fond of providing more elaborations and additional information in their speeches. Alami posits that DMs performs multiplicity of functions in the discourse. DMs likely serve numerous communicative functions in diverse dimensions.
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They serve general-purpose communicative functions, such as informs, elaborations of various kinds, suggestions, warnings, disagreements, etc. Such claims are supported by Fuller who found that discourse marker utilization relies on context Lim, In the present study, the various contexts of the presidential speeches center on social and political gatherings in which attendees are coming from different nationalities.
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Hence discourse markers are used in the organization of the presidential speeches based on the purpose and attitude of the selected presidents toward the audience in particular situations or contexts. The selected Presidents in the study are the elected leaders of the Republic of China whose presidential speeches are written and delivered in English. China is located in Southeast Asia along the coastline of the Pacific Ocean. It is the world's third largest country, after Russia and Canada.
China is a major global exporter in terms of market liberalization Hirst, Its rapid developing business environment helps its tourism industry prosper Zhou, English language is used as one of the official languages Sharma, Below is the percentage of discourse markers forms and functions applied in the selected Chinese presidential speeches.
Table 6 presents the percentage of discourse markers forms and functions. It is also worth noticing that Adding Somethin g with a total percentage of. This goes to show that Chinese Presidents established meaningful communication with their audience by providing more amount of information. However, they are not particular of using discourse markers that stress out the order of information. Here are the forms and functions of DMs evident in the speeches of Chinese presidents: Adding Something that ; Giving Causes and Results thus, therefore ; Introducing Contrasting Information on the other hand, however and; Numbering and Ordering Points finally.
According to Levy and Jaeger , if one of the ultimate functions of language is to establish necessary structure that allows meaningful communication, discourses would be structured in such a way they increase the amount of information a speaker conveys. This is to achieve communicative efficiency in Rohde and Frank, Bu conducted a study on the acquisition of English discourse markers like, yeah, oh, you know, well, I mean, right, ok and actually by Chinese learners of English, comparing their use to a limited certain functions.
They found out that DMs under study favor different functions from the native speakers in Lim, This study is relevant to the present study since it likewise studies DMs used by Chinese who are also one of the respondents of the present study who at the same time are using English. Discourse markers are popular in impromptu oral speech. In fact, various studies deal with definitions and functions of discourse markers by native speakers: Schiffrin, on English; Miracle on Mandarin Chinese; and Onodera on Japanese Ostman, cited in Liu, However, it is not only popular in impromptu speech because in the present study such claim does not apply since the chosen presidential speeches were prepared in advance where DMs are also popular.
Discourse markers are significant to the study of language acquisition particularly pragmatic, semantic and syntactic features which show the subtle interplay between form and function Yinxiu, Zhang in Alghamdi, conducted a qualitative and quantitative study of the use of DMs of the expository compositions of Chinese undergraduates considering the Halliday and Hasan's taxonomy of cohesive devices and their framework.
The findings show that students utilized more frequently some categories of ties; and the relationship between the frequency of cohesive ties employed and the quality of writing is not statistically significant. This has relevance to the study since both expository compositions and presidential speeches are organized using DMs and both express the intention of the writer or speaker in a certain context.
The Presidents whose presidential speeches under study are the leaders of the Republic of India. India is situated in South Asia and the seventh largest country in the world MapsofIndia. Its increasing foreign direct investment and expertise in information technology provides new jobs and increases domestic consumption Gosal, English is used as provisional official sub-language New World Encyclopedia, Travel and tourism industry of India is enormous which provides employment to millions of people in India IloveIndia.
Below is the presentation of the percentage of discourse markers forms and functions that emerge in the presidential speeches of the Indian presidents. Table 7 displays the percentage of discourse markers forms and functions. Interestingly, among the DMs, Giving Causes and Results is significantly used in the speeches of Indian presidents with a total percentage of. This implies that Indian Presidents are service and result-oriented intellectuals. They are likewise cautious of redundancy which is evident in their speeches.
This is amplified by Hyland and Tse when they assert that DM categories are interpersonal and textual markers which ultimate purpose is to convince readers; to organize discourse and to reflect writer's stance towards both the content of the text and the prospective reader Dylgjeri, The leaders whose presidential speeches are selected for the present study are the elected presidents of South Korea Worldatlas, a , Worldatlas, b.
South Korea is located in the continent of Asia with a population of Seoul is the country's capital city. Ranks the sixth leading global town in the world with the fourth greatest economy StudyCountry, a , StudyCountry, b.