Modern art, by contrast, while unlikely to match the formal perfection of classical Greek art, contains the potential to explore subjective spirit. One crucial dimension of subjective spirit is freedom, which becomes a distinctive preoccupation of modern art and post-Kantian philosophy. He uses narrative points of view, pseudonyms, vignettes, character sketches and case studies from life and literature to illustrate how dialectics of moods, emotions and spirit can both disable and enable individual freedom. Moods such as melancholy, boredom and irony can become demonically self-perpetuating, but they also have the potential to lift the individual to a state of self-reflection that amounts to higher order consciousness, thereby enabling the individual to see his or her former existence as what Wittgenstein called a limited whole.
The highest order of consciousness for Kierkegaard is God-consciousness, which enables the individual to see himself or herself as both a sinner and as open to divine grace. So it had little immediate effect as discursive action. Kierkegaard sought to remedy this by provoking an attack on himself in the popular satirical review The Corsair.
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Kierkegaard succeeded in having himself mercilessly lampooned in this publication, largely on personal grounds rather than in terms of the substance of his writings. The suffering incurred by these attacks sparked Kierkegaard into another highly productive phase of authorship, but this time his focus was the creation of positive Christian discourses rather than satire or parody.
He realized he could no longer indulge himself in the painstakingly erudite and poetically meticulous writing he had practised hitherto. This addressed church politics directly and increasingly shrilly. One was the influence of Hegel, largely through the teachings of H.
Introductory remarks on Drucker's essay
Martensen; the other was the popularity of N. Grundtvig, a theologian, educator and poet who composed most of the pieces in the Danish hymn book. Grundtvig emphasized the light, joyous, celebratory and communal aspects of Christianity, whereas Kierkegaard emphasized seriousness, suffering, sin, guilt, and individual isolation. His intervention with respect to Hegelianism also failed, with Martensen succeeding Mynster as Bishop Primate.
Hegelianism in the church went on to die of natural causes. Kierkegaard also provided critical commentary on social change. He feared that the opportunity of achieving genuine selfhood was diminished by the social production of stereotypes. He lived in an age when mass society was emerging from a highly stratified feudal order and was contemptuous of the mediocrity the new social order generated. One symptom of the change was that mass society substitutes detached reflection for engaged passionate commitment.
Yet the latter is crucial for Christian faith and for authentic selfhood according to Kierkegaard. His pamphleteering achieved little immediate impact, but his substantial philosophical, literary, psychological and theological writings have had a lasting effect. Ibsen and Strindberg, together with Friedrich Nietzsche, became central icons of the modernism movement in Berlin in the s. Taking his cue from Brandes, the Swedish literary critic Ola Hansson subsequently promoted this conjunction of writers in Berlin itself.
Berlin modernism self-consciously sought to use art as a means of political and social change. Many other writers have been inspired by Kierkegaard to tackle fundamental issues in philosophy, politics, theology and psychology. Franz Kafka, Emmanuel Levinas and Jacques Derrida have all written extensively in response, to try to sort out the implications for ethics and faith. Kierkegaard was a saint. This has produced quite a debate about the relevance of Kierkegaard for developing narrative accounts of the self, with notable contributions by Anthony Rudd, John Davenport, John Lippitt and Patrick Stokes.
Paul Ricoeur and Judith Butler have also been influenced by Kierkegaard, especially regarding his use of rhetoric and narrative point of view to critique systematic philosophy. It is impossible to give an exhaustive list of the important thinkers who owe an intellectual or existential debt to Kierkegaard.
The diversity of the writers and thinkers mentioned above nevertheless testifies to the breadth and depth of his influence, which continues into the present age. Published against his Will by S. Kierkegaard passed final theological examination - proposed to Regine Olsen, who accepted him broke off his engagement to Regine Olsen - defended his dissertation On the Concept of Irony with constant reference to Socrates Om Begrebet Ironi med stadigt Hensyn til Socrates - trip to Berlin, where he attended lectures by Schelling returned from Berlin Either-Or: A Fragment of Life edited by Victor Eremita Enten-Eller.
Af Johannes Climacus. Udgivet af S. Studier af Forskjellige. Kierkegaard Afsluttende uvidenskabelig Efterskrift til de philosophiske Smuler. Udgiven af S. Kierkegaard En literair Anmeldelse af S. Kierkegaard Opbyggelige Taler i forskjellig Aand af S.
The Sickness Unto Death Background
Kierkegaard Kjerlighedens Gjerninger. Nogle christelige Overveielser i Talers Form, af S.
Kierkegaard Christelige Taler, af S. En ligefrem Meddelelse, Rapport til Historien, af S. Kierkegaard Lilien paa Marken og Fuglen under Himlen. Tre gudelige Taler af S. Tvende ethisk-religieuse Smaa-Afhandlinger.
Af Anticlimacus. Af Anti-Climacus—Udgivet af S.
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)
Kierkegaard - An Edifying Discourse by S. Kierkegaard En opbyggelig Tale. Kierkegaard Om min Forfatter-Virksomhed. Kierkegaard - Judge For Yourselves! Recommended to the present time for Self-Examination. Second series, by S. Kierkegaard - The Instant by S. Kierkegaard Guds Uforanderlighed.
En Tale—Af S. Kierkegaard - Kierkegaard died November Adorno, Theodor W.
- Søren Kierkegaard (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).
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Davenport John J. Derrida, Jacques, , The Gift of Death , trans. Evans, C. Ferreira, M. Bruce H. Kirmmse, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Reitzels Forlag. Knox, Macon: Mercer University Press. Hall, Ronald L. Hannay, Alastair and Gordon Marino eds. Houe, Poul, , Gordon D. Jegstrup, Elsebet ed. Kirmmse, Bruce H. Laursen, Princeton, N. Law, David R. Lippitt, John and George Pattison eds.
The moral implications of Kierkegaard's analysis of despair | Religious Studies | Cambridge Core
Malantschuk, Gregor, , Frihed og Eksistens. Malik, Habib C. Kirmmse, Pittsburgh, Pa. Podmore, Simon D.