Unemployment and social exclusion are other negative factors that tend to retard social policy towards welfare aims. Unemployment can be due to inadequacy in appropriate skills, or due to physical limitations such as old age and disability. Illness and old age are associated as health of old people are below average and most elderly individuals also suffer from some disability. All this is added to problems of isolation and mental dissatisfaction or some sort of psychological crisis in old age. Disability of any form of permanent illness can have social, physical or psychological implications and forms a significant aspect of welfare considerations.
Although social policy is focused on the more politically active and conscious younger generation and tends to attend to social needs of employment and rights and justice issues that concern young people.
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Social policy is thus an all-inclusive diverse discipline with varied academic and socio-political aspects with active concerns on public health and welfare. Daly emphasizes on the importance of governance as a frame of analysis in social policy and investigates the usage and utility of governance as a discipline to study aspects of social policy.
Using governance and political decisions as tools for development of social policy in the UK, Daly considers the public sphere, policy implementation, societal incorporation and policy making through governance examining the various strengths and weaknesses of governance including it focus on power and different levels of action and analysis. Taylor takes on a different approach and emphasizes the importance of social identity in social policy research.
Taylor suggests that there are problems in the understanding of the concept of social policy which according to him is clearly misunderstood and delineates the necessity of a provisional theory that can distinguish between ontological and categorical identity in social policy. This he suggests would help to improve an understanding of the role of soils policy in the process of social identity formation.
Franklin analyses the concept of social capital as an important instrument to political change. Franklin writes that the idea o social capital reconfigures the dynamics between social justice and economic efficiency and makes social relationships a key factor in explaining levels of inequality, economic prosperity and political participation Franklin , p.
The concept of social capital as the focus of social policy shifts the focus of responsibility from government to individual, from economy to society informing policies that highlight social behavior reducing costs to government providing in turn economic solutions to social problems.
The human as agency has also been taken up in social policy research extensively and Deacon and Mann focus on individual behavior in sociology and social policy research. The focus of the article is on the individual and the increasing moral and ethical dilemmas faced by an individual in a contemporary society, an aspect that has broad implications of social policy that is concerned with a general well being of every individual and a sense of well being is an important part of moral and ethical values.
The authors suggest that moralists such as Field and Mead share the need for restructuring welfare to encourage responsible moral behavior. However sociologists Beck and Bauman believe that such a forced method might prove not only futile but even dangerous. Individualistic approaches and theories face considerable resistance from quarters that fear any support for atavistic individualism.
However, the authors realize the need for a revival of theories based on the individual human agency that can create opportunities within social science and make it more sensitive to the activities of poor people and to the necessities and differences of a contemporary diverse British society. In this essay we analyzed the definitions of social policy and highlighted the all-encompassing nature of social policy and practice and how this is related to the concept of British welfare state.
In this context we also analyzed the concept of welfare as government action to promote well-being considering the necessities of unemployed young people as also disabled or ill elderly persons.
The needs of the poor and socially excluded are also considered in drawing up polices based on national health system and social security concerns. In our analysis of recent research papers, we discussed individual behavior, social identity, moral and ethical responsibility, and political issues in governance as important aspects of social policy research.
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