The government can be seen to create its own problems, which then require new public policy to deal with them. The government may, for example, choose to cut down the steep prices of the ERP system or to widen existing roads. It is an important but frequently overlooked step. Firstly, lacking proper implementation, policy innovation and selection may end up being little more than intellectual exercises.
Indeed, faulty policy implementation can invalidate the earlier, carefully considered steps in the policy-making process and thereby intensify the original problem. This stage then, warrants our careful attention. Secondly, policy failures mostly occur at the implementation stage. This is because policy-makers have not paid enough attention to policy implementation.
To identify the problems caused by implementation, one needs to first acknowledge the difference between non-implementation and unsuccessful implementation. Unsuccessful implementation is where the failure is in the policy or the theory it is based upon. This may happen due to insufficient resources, organizational complexity, inadequate planning, inflated aspirations and complex environments.
Essay on Policy-Making in India | Government | Public Administration
Non-implementation is when a policy is not put into effect as it was intended. It could be that those involved in its execution are uncooperative or inefficient. Besides, the government may leave it to the discretion of agencies and Civil Service departments. Hence, the problem of unclear objectives is noted.
U.s. Policy Making Process
There is a need during the implementation stage for an understanding and agreement on clear objectives, which must persist throughout the implementation stage, for it to be successful. Thirdly, different implementing agencies may depend on other agencies for success. The smaller the number of relationships between agencies and the smaller their importance, chance of success would be greater. The more they depend on others the more inefficient they will become. In addition, administrators can face many obstacles outside their control, as they are external to the policy or the implementation process.
Sometimes these can be put down to bad luck, like physical obstructions such as drought upsetting an agricultural program. Sometimes it may be political obstacles that get in the way, as with the public condemnation of the Poll Tax in Europe, leading to reforms in the policy cycle.
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However, this is not to say that the other stages of the policy-making process are unimportant. We still need to consider the relative importance of other stages as well because any policy failure may be due to the problems arising from these stages. Policy initiation is crucial in that it sets the political agenda by both defining certain problems as issues and by determining how those issues are to be addressed.
Problem definition and policy formulation have contingent or dependent relationships. Problems need to be defined first before policy formulation on a particular course of action is made. Policy-makers are constantly probing, searching and redefining problems and issues. Formulation is also important because it includes a number of analytical steps such as the decision about how to decide, assessing the various options and selecting the best, and the actual drafting of legislation.
It is the decision-making stage of the policy process. It is the most overtly political stage insofar as the many potential solutions to a given problem must somehow be winnowed down to one or a few picked and readied for use. Obviously, most possible choices will not be realized. Moreover, the policy-makers might get it wrong at this stage by choosing the wrong approach and this can result in policy failures which subsequently occur at the implementation stage.
Policy success does require that policy be formulated upon a valid theory of cause and effect. Formulation should be based on adequate understanding of the problem; otherwise it can lead to reasoning of its effects which are very different from the eventual actuality. If policy does fail, it might be this underlying theory that is at fault. Undoubtedly, the evaluation stage is also important.
This process is required as our understanding of social issues and the effect of government intervention is imperfect. We cannot be certain of the results a policy will bring or of the efficiency and success of implementing it. Therefore there is a need for evaluation in the policy-making process. It must be decided whether the policy meet the objectives it was designed for. Even when a policy has enjoyed some level of success it is unlikely that it will act as maintaining this level of improvement.
Extract of sample "Policy-making process"
It is more likely to lead to a continuation or modification of the existing policy. In conclusion, policy-making process is a long-term matter starting with the establishing of goals and moving through the selection of alternatives and to the implementation and evaluation of the solution. This process model is criticized as being too ordered, predictable and rational.
In actuality, policy does not follow this sequential order of approach. Moreover, the boundaries between the different stages are blurred. For instance, policy implementation may lead to problem definition and policy evaluation is a constant activity. They are not restricted to a stipulated stage or time.
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In my view, the implementation process is the most important stage in the policy process, as a policy will remain as an idea if it is not implemented. What is the policy-making process. Accessed October 18, We will write a custom paper sample on What is the policy-making process specifically for you. Leave your email and we will send you an example after 24 hours 23 : 59 : If you contact us after hours, we'll get back to you in 24 hours or less.
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Policy-making process - Essay Example
Consider what the definition seems to leave out, and draw on the other definitions to suggest your answer. Examine the diagram of the policy cycle provided, and list three organizations, institutions, or policy actors people-in-position who you might expect to be involved in any ONE stage of the cycle shown. Power and C. It is used to refer to a process of decision-making and also to the product of that process. Wanna, J. Warhurst and P. No doubt, the above sentence is somewhat correct in its quotation but it hardly gives an insight of what public policy is?
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A good public policy holds the basis of learning from experience. It has to be understood as part of the institutionalization of social practice, the way that public authority is mobilized to shape practice in multiple and diverse fields of action. We must not forget that the authorized leaders like elected politicians have a strategic place in the process, but it is not just the implementation of their preferences.
In any case, while legitimating the outcome their electorally grounded legitimacy will make an impact.